What is Second Generation Pharmacogenetics?

It is the integration of the information obtained from pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic genetic testing into algorithms to assess the complex dynamics between these processes and how they affect the effect of drugs and the response to medication.


Drugs must be metabolized appropriately for success.

Antidepressants are absorbed by the intestines into the blood stream, then metabolized to their active form to eventually be cleared by the liver.

Metabolization is mainly done by two liver enzymes, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6,

11% of the population have a malfunctioning genetic variant of one of these enzymes, while 5% of the population have both.

All available pharmacogenetic tests provide good information when the failure is due to these particular genetic variations, but success here does not guarantee total success.

Brain Receptors

Drugs must be compatible with their target receptors in the brain.

To have the desired effect, antidepressants must cross the blood-brain barrier in order to reach their target receptors. The gene responsible for this is ABCB1, and we are the only service that tests for it.

Once in the brain, the drug must be able to bind to it targets, so these genes must be assessed as well. We also test for all brain receptors that impact, directly or indirectly, the response to antidepressants.

Pathway Algorithms

Pathway algorithms provide a summation of the tested genes.

It is good to test for many brain receptors, but one gene might be compatible with the drug, while another might not!

We are the only company that deploys proprietary pathway algorithms for each drug. Resulting in a definite recommendation by our pharmacists.