Metabolism (P450) – References

  1. Bousman CA, Stevenson JM, Ramsey LB, Sangkuhl K, Hicks JK, Strawn JR, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CP2B6, SLC6A4, and HTR2A Genotypes and Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants. Clin Pharmacol Ther [Internet]. 2023 Apr 9 [cited 2023 Apr 24] Available from: doi: 10.1002/cpt.2903
  2. Hicks JK, Sangkuhl K, Swen JJ, Ellingrod VL, Muller DJ, Shimoda K, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline (CPIC) for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants: 2016 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther [Internet]. 2017 Jun 15;102(1):37-44. Available from:
  3. Brouwer JMJL, Nijenhuis M, Soree B, Guchelaar H, Swen JJ, van Schaik RHN, et al. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) guideline for the gene-drug interaction between CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and SSRIs. Eur J Hum Genet [Internet]. 2021 Nov 16;30(10):1114-20. Available from:
  4. Eum S, Sayre F, Lee AM, Stingl JC, Bishop JR. Association of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms with bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy [Internet]. 2021 Nov 23;42(1):34-44. Available from:
  5. Zhu AZX, Cox LS, Nollen N, Faseru B, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, et al. CYP2B6 and Bupropion’s Smoking-Cessation Pharmacology: The Role of Hydroxybupropion. Clin Pharmacol Ther [Internet]. 2012 Dec;92(6):771-7. Available from:
  6. Brown JT, Bishop JR, Sangkuhl K, Nurmi EL, Mueller DJ, Dinh JC, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 Genotype and Atomoxetine Therapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther [Internet]. 2019 Jul;106(1):94-102. Available from:
  7. Crews KR, Monte AA, Huddart R, Caudle KE, Kharasch ED, Gaedigk A, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for CYP2D6, OPRM1, and COMT Genotypes and Select Opioid Therapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther [Internet]. 2021 Oct;110(4):888-96. Available from:
  8. Matic M, Nijenhuis M, Soree B, de Boer-Veger NJ, Buunk AM, Houwink EJF, et al. Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (DPWG) guideline for the gene-drug interaction between CYP2D6 and opioids (codeine, tramadol and oxycodone). Eur J Hum Genet [Internet]. 2022 Oct;30(10):1105-13. Available from:

Blood-Brain-Barrier (ABCB1) – References

  1. O’Brien FE, Dinan TG, Griffin BT, Cryan JF. Interactions between antidepressants and P-glycoprotein at the blood–brain barrier: clinical significance of in vitro and in vivo findings. Br J Pharmacol [Internet]. 2012 Jan;165(2):289-312. Available from:
  2. Holsboer F. Clinical Impact of Pharmacogenetic Testing on Antidepressant Therapy. Ann Depress Anxiety [Internet]. 2017 Sep 8;4(1):1085. Available from:
  3. Uhr M, Tontsch A, Namendorf C, Ripke S, Lucae S, Ising M, et al. Polymorphisms in the drug transporter gene ABCB1 predict antidepressant treatment response in depression. Neuron [Internet]. 2008 Jan 24;57(2):203-9. Available from:
  4. Breitenstein B, Brückl T, Ising M, Müller-Myhsok B, Holsboer F, Czamara D. ABCB1 Gene Variants and Antidepressant Treatment Outcome: A Meta- Analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet [Internet]. 2015 Jun;168B(4):274-83. Available from:
  5. Breitenstein B, Scheuer S, Bruckl TM, Meyer J, Ising M, Uhr M, et al. Association of ABCB1 gene variants, plasma antidepressant concentration, and treatment response: Results from a randomized clinical study. J Psychiatr Res [Internet]. 2016 Feb;73:86-95. Available from:
  6. Brückl TM, Uhr M. ABCB1 genotyping in the treatment of depression. Pharmacogenomics [Internet]. 2016 Dec 5;17(18):2039-69. Available from:
  7. Uhr M, Steckler T, Yassouridis A, Holsboer F. Penetration of Amitriptyline, but Not of Fluoxetine, into Brain is Enhanced in Mice with Blood-Brain Barrier Deficiency Due to Mdr1a P-Glycoprotein Gene Disruption. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2000 Apr;22(4):380-7. Available from:
  8. Doran A, Obach RS, Smith BJ, Hosea NA, Becker S, Callegari E, et al. The impact of P-glycoprotein on the disposition of drugs targeted for indications of the central nervous system: Evaluation using the MDR1A/1B knockout mouse model. Drug Metab Dispos [Internet]. 2005 Jan;33(1):165-74. Available from:
  9. Srivalli KMR, Lakshmi PK. Overview of P-glycoprotein inhibitors: a rational outlook. Braz J Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2012 Sep;48(3):353-67. Available from:

Serotonin System References

  1. Pettitt A. Genetic Variations in the Serotonergic System Mediate a Combined, Weakened Response to SSRI Treatment: A Proposed Model,. eNeuro [Internet]. 2015 Jun 5 [cited 2021 Mar 22];2(3). Available from:
  2. Coplan JD, Gopinath S, Abdallah CG, Berry BR. A Neurobiological Hypothesis of Treatment-Resistant Depression “Mechanisms for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Non-Efficacy. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience [Internet]. 2014 May 20;8(8). Available from:
  3. McIntyre RS. The role of new antidepressants in clinical practice in Canada: a brief review of vortioxetine, levomilnacipran ER, and vilazodone. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2017 Nov;Volume 13:2913–9.
  4. Porcelli S, Drago A, Fabbri C, Gibiino S, Calati R, Serretti A. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 1;36(2):87–113.
  5. Stein K, Maruf AA, Müller DJ, Bishop JR, Bousman CA. Serotonin Transporter Genetic Variation and Antidepressant Response and Tolerability: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021 Dec 9;11(12):1334.
  6. Stevenson JM. Insights and barriers to clinical use of serotonin transporter pharmacogenetics in antidepressant therapy. Pharmacogenomics [Internet]. 2018 Feb 1;19(3):167–70. Available from:
  7. Mrazek DA, Rush AJ, Biernacka JM, O’Kane DJ, Cunningham JM, Wieben ED, et al. SLC6A4 variation and citalopram response. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 2009 Apr 5;150B(3):341–51.
  8. Wei YB, McCarthy M, Ren H, Carrillo-Roa T, Shekhtman T, DeModena A, et al. A functional variant in the serotonin receptor 7 gene (HTR7), rs7905446, is associated with good response to SSRIs in bipolar and unipolar depression. Molecular Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 15;
  9. McMahon FJ, Buervenich S, Charney D, Lipsky R, Rush AJ, Wilson AF, et al. Variation in the Gene Encoding the Serotonin 2A Receptor Is Associated with Outcome of Antidepressant Treatment. The American Journal of Human Genetics. 2006 May;78(5):804–14.
  10. Blasi G, Virgilio CD, Papazacharias A, Taurisano P, Gelao B, Fazio L, et al. Converging Evidence for the Association of Functional Genetic Variation in the Serotonin Receptor 2a Gene With Prefrontal Function and Olanzapine Treatment. JAMA Psychiatry [Internet]. 2013 Sep 1 [cited 2020 Feb 23];70(9):921–30. Available from:
  11. Lucae S, Ising M, Horstmann S, Baune BT, Arolt V, Müller-Myhsok B, et al. HTR2A gene variation is involved in antidepressant treatment response. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Jan;20(1):65–8.
  12. Mekli K, Payton A, Miyajima F, Platt H, Thomas E, Downey D, et al. The HTR1A and HTR1B receptor genes influence stress-related information processing. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Jan;21(1):129–39.
  13. Bétry C, Etiévant A, Oosterhof C, Ebert B, Sanchez C, Haddjeri N. Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in the Antidepressant Response. Pharmaceuticals [Internet]. 2011 Apr 7 [cited 2019 Nov 22];4(4):603–29. Available from:
  14. Shalimova A, Babasieva V, Chubarev VN, Tarasov VV, Schiöth HB, Mwinyi J. Therapy response prediction in major depressive disorder: current and novel genomic markers influencing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacogenomics. 2021 Jun;22(8).
  15. Kim HW, Kang JI, Lee SH, An SK, Sohn SY, Hwang EH, et al. Common variants of HTR3 genes are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and its phenotypic expression. Scientific Reports. 2016 Sep;6(1).
  16. Nguyen CT, Rosen JA, Bota RG. Aripiprazole Partial Agonism at 5-HT2C. The Primary Care Companion For CNS Disorders [Internet]. 2012 Oct 18 [cited 2022 May 3]; Available from:
  17. Maffioletti E, Valsecchi P, Minelli A, Magri C, Bonvicini C, Barlati S, et al. Association study betweenHTR2Ars6313 polymorphism and early response to risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenia patients. Drug Development Research. 2020 May 27;81(6):754–61.
  18. Commons KG, Linnros SE. Delayed Antidepressant Efficacy and the Desensitization Hypothesis. ACS chemical neuroscience [Internet]. 2019 Jul 17;10(7):3048–52. Available from:
  19. Albert PR, Le François B, Millar AM. Transcriptional dysregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in mental illness. Molecular Brain. 2011;4(1):21.
  20. Richardson-Jones JW, Craige CP, Guiard BP, Stephen A, Metzger KL, Kung HF, et al. 5-HT1A Autoreceptor Levels Determine Vulnerability to Stress and Response to Antidepressants. Neuron. 2010 Jan;65(1):40–52.

Dopamine System References

  1. Jones JD, Comer SD. A review of pharmacogenetic studies of substance-related disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2015 Jul;152:1–14.
  2. Moyer RA, Wang D, Papp AC, Smith RM, Duque L, Mash DC, et al. Intronic Polymorphisms Affecting Alternative Splicing of Human Dopamine D2 Receptor Are Associated with Cocaine Abuse. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2010 Dec 8 [cited 2019 Nov 15];36(4):753–62. Available from:
  3. Lerman C, Jepson C, Wileyto EP, Epstein LH, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, et al. Role of Functional Genetic Variation in the Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2) in Response to Bupropion and Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Tobacco Dependence: Results of Two Randomized Clinical Trials. Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2006 Jan 1 [cited 2023 Apr 20];31(1):231–42. Available from:
  4. Porcelli S, Drago A, Fabbri C, Gibiino S, Calati R, Serretti A. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 2011 Mar 1;36(2):87–113.
  5. He Q, Shen Z, Ren L, Wang X, Qian M, Zhu J, et al. The association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphisms and generalized anxiety disorder in the Chinese Han population. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2023 Apr 20];13(7):1712–9. Available from:
  6. Fawver J, Flanagan M, Smith T, Drouin M, Mirro M. The association of COMT genotype with buproprion treatment response in the treatment of major depressive disorder [Internet]. National Library of Medicine . Brain and Behavior ; 2020 [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from:
  7. Baune BT, Hohoff C, Berger K, Neumann A, Mortensen S, Roehrs T, et al. Association of the COMT val158met Variant with Antidepressant Treatment Response in Major Depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 May 23;33(4):924–32.
  8. Ochi T, Vyalova NM, Losenkov IS, Paderina DZ, Pozhidaev IV, Loonen AJM, et al. Preliminary Pharmacogenetic Study to Explore Putative Dopaminergic Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action. Journal of Personalized Medicine [Internet]. 2021 Aug 1 [cited 2023 Apr 20];11(8):731. Available from:
  9. ElSayed N, Yamamoto K, Froehlich T. Genetic Influence on Efficacy of Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Overview and Current Status of Research [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from:
  10. Belujon P, Grace AA. Dopamine System Dysregulation in Major Depressive Disorders. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology [Internet]. 2017 Jun 29;20(12):1036–46. Available from:
  11. Gong L, He C, Yin Y, Wang H, Ye Q, Bai F, et al. Mediating Role of the Reward Network in the Relationship between the Dopamine Multilocus Genetic Profile and Depression. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2023 Apr 20]; Available from:
  12. 1Gomez-Sanchez CI, Carballo JJ, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Soto-Insuga V, Rodrigo M, Mahillo-Fernandez I, et al. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate in childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: long-term effects. Scientific Reports. 2017 Sep 4;7(1).
  13. Salatino-Oliveira A, Rohde LA, Hutz MH. The dopamine transporter role in psychiatric phenotypes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 2017 Aug 2;177(2):211–31.
  14. Stahl SM, Pradko JF, Haight BR, Modell JG, Rockett CB, Learned-Coughlin S. A Review of the Neuropharmacology of Bupropion, a Dual Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry [Internet]. 2004;6(4):159–66. Available from:
  15. Liu S, Green CE, Lane SD, Kosten TR, Moeller FG, Nielsen DA, et al. The influence of dopamine β-hydroxylase gene polymorphism rs1611115 on levodopa/carbidopa treatment for cocaine dependence. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. 2014 Jul;24(7):370–3.
  16. Demers CH, Bogdan R, Agrawal A. The Genetics, Neurogenetics and Pharmacogenetics of Addiction. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 2014 Jan 11;1(1):33–44.

Norepinephrine System Refences

  1. Froehlich TE, Epstein JN, Nick TG, Melguizo Castro MS, Stein MA, Brinkman WB, et al. Pharmacogenetic predictors of methylphenidate dose-response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [Internet]. 2011 Nov 1 [cited 2022 Oct 31];50(11):1129-1139.e2. Available from:
  2. Hain DT, Al Habbab T, Cogan ES, Johnson HL, Law RA, Lewis DJ. Review and Meta-analysis on the Impact of the ADRA2A Variant rs1800544 on Methylphenidate Outcomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science [Internet]. 2022 Apr 1 [cited 2023 Apr 20];2(2):106–14. Available from:
  3. Marshe VS, Maciukiewicz M, Rej S, Tiwari AK, Sibille E, Blumberger DM, et al. Norepinephrine Transporter Gene Variants and Remission From Depression With Venlafaxine Treatment in Older Adults. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2017 May;174(5):468–75.
  4. Aldosary F, Norris S, Tremblay P, James J, Ritchie J, Blier P. Differential Potency of Venlafaxine, Paroxetine, and Atomoxetine to Inhibit Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2023 Apr 20]. Available from:
  5. Castro Gonçalves AB, Ferreira Fratelli C, Saraiva Siqueira JW, Canongia de Abreu Cardoso Duarte L, Ribeiro Barros A, Possatti I, et al. MAOA uVNTR Genetic Variant and Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review. Cells. 2022 Oct 17;11(20):3267.
  6. Chappell K, Colle R, Bouligand J, Trabado S, Fève B, Becquemont L, et al. The MAOA rs979605 Genetic Polymorphism Is Differentially Associated with Clinical Improvement Following Antidepressant Treatment between Male and Female Depressed Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences [Internet]. 2023 Jan 1 [cited 2023 Apr 20];24(1):497. Available from:
  7. He Q, Shen Z, Ren L, Wang X, Qian M, Zhu J, et al. The association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 polymorphisms and generalized anxiety disorder in the Chinese Han population. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology [Internet]. 2020;13(7):1712–9. Available from:
  8. Tang Z, Zhang S, Guo D, Wang H. Association between COMT gene Val108/158Met and antidepressive treatment response: A meta-analysis. Gene. 2020 Apr;734(15):144333.
  9. Fawver J, Flanagan M, Smith T, Drouin M, Mirro M. The association of COMT genotype with bupropion treatment response in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Brain and Behavior. 2020 May 27;10(7).
  10. Bruxel EM, Akutagava-Martins GC, Salatino-Oliveira A, Contini V, Kieling C, Hutz MH, et al. ADHD pharmacogenetics across the life cycle: New findings and perspectives. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 2014 May 8;165(4):263–82.
  11. Yuan D, Zhang M, Huang Y, Wang X, Jiao J, Huang Y. Noradrenergic genes polymorphisms and response to methylphenidate in children with ADHD. Medicine. 2021 Nov 19;100(46):e27858.
  12. Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Dunn EC, Mortero S, Devan WJ, Falcone GJ, Lee P, et al. Dopamine Genetic Risk Score Predicts Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Adults and Adults with Depression. Yao YG, editor. PLoS ONE. 2014 May 16;9(5):e93772.
  13. Ochi T, Vyalova NM, Losenkov IS, Paderina DZ, Pozhidaev IV, Loonen AJM, et al. Polymorphisms in the adrenergic neurotransmission pathway impact antidepressant response in depressed patients. Neuroscience Applied [Internet]. 2023 Jan 1 [cited 2023 Apr 20];2(2):101016. Available from:
  14. Yin L, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Yu T, He G, Sun X. TPH, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, DRD2 and DRD4 Polymorphisms and Neuroendocrine Factors Predict SSRIs Treatment Outcome in the Chinese Population with Major Depression. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2015 Feb 2;48(03):95–103.

Glutamate-GABA system References

  1. Estela Saez, Leire Erkoreka, Teresa Moreno-Calle, Belen Berjano, Ana Gonzalez-Pinto, Nieves Basterreche, Aurora Arrue, Genetic variables of the glutamatergic system associated with treatment-resistant depression: A review of the literature, World J Psychiatry 2022 July 19; 12(7): 884-896 Genetic variables of the glutamatergic system associated with treatment-resistant depression: A review of the literature – PubMed (
  2. Ronald S. Duman, Gerard Sanacora, and John H. Krystal, Altered Connectivity in Depression: GABA and Glutamate Neurotransmitter Deficits and Reversal by Novel Treatments, Neuron 102, April 3, 2019
  3. XiaobinZhang, Joanna Norton, Isabelle Carrière, Karen Ritchie, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan & Marie-LaureAncelin, Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder, Nature Scientific Reports 7:42676, 15 February 2017.
  4. Christopher F. Rose, Alexei Verkhratsky and Vladimir Parpura, Astrocyte glutamine synthetase: pivotal in health and disease, Biochemical Society Transactions (2013) Volume 41, part 6.
  5. Albert Adell, Brain NMDA Receptors in Schizophrenia and Depression, Biomolecules, 23 June 2020.
  6. Dwight F. Newton, Corey Fee, Yuliya S. Nikolova and Etienne Sibille, Altered GABAergic Function, Cortical Microcircuitry, and Information Processing in Depression, Neurobiology of Depression.
  7. Li-Ching Lee, Ying-Chun Cho, Pei-Jung Lin, Ting-Chi Yeh, Chun-Yen Chang, and Ting-Kuang Yeh, Influence of Genetic Variants of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor on Emotion and Social Behavior in Adolescents, Neural Plasticity Volume 2016, Article ID 6851592, 8 pages.
  8. Scott J Myers, Hongjie Yuan, Jing-Qiong Kang, Francis Chee Kuan Tan, Stephen F Traynelis, Chian-Ming Low, Distinct roles of GRIN2A and GRIN2B variants in neurological conditions, F1000Research 2019, 8(F1000 Faculty Rev):1940.
  9. Mathias V. Schmidt, Dietrich Tru¨mbach, Peter Weber, Klaus Wagner, Sebastian H. Scharf, Claudia Liebl, Nicole Datson, Christian Namendorf, Tamara Gerlach, Claudia Ku¨hne, Manfred Uhr, Jan M. Deussing, Wolfgang Wurst, Elisabeth B. Binder, Florian Holsboer, and Marianne B. Mu¨ller, Individual Stress Vulnerability Is Predicted by Short-Term Memory and AMPA Receptor Subunit Ratio in the Hippocampus, The Journal of Neuroscience, December 15, 2010, 30(50):16949 –16958, 16949.
  10. Joanna M. Wierońska1, Agnieszka Pałucha-Poniewiera1, Gabriel Nowak1,2 and Andrzej Pilc, Depression Viewed as a GABA/Glutamate Imbalance in the Central Nervous System; Clinical, Research and Treatment Approaches to Affective Disorders, Polish Academy of Science, February 2012.
  11. M Sokolowski, YJ Ben-Efraim, J Wasserman and D Wasserman, Glutamatergic GRIN2B and polyaminergic ODC1 genes in suicide attempts: associations and gene–environment interactions with childhood/adolescent physical assault; Molecular Psychiatry (2013) 18, 985 – 992.
  12. A. E. Gareevaa , D. F. Zakirovb , and E. K. Khusnutdinovaa, Association Polymorphic Variants of GRIN2B Gene with Paranoid Schizophrenia and Response to Typical Neuroleptics in Russians and Tatars from Bashkortostan Republic; Russian Journal of Genetics, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 9, pp. 962–968.
  13. Chen Zhang & Zezhi Li & Zhiguo Wu & Jun Chen & Zuowei Wang & Daihui Peng & Wu Hong & Chengmei Yuan & Zhen Wang & Shunying Yu & Yifeng Xu & Lin Xu & Zeping Xiao & Yiru Fang, A study of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor gene (GRIN2B) variants as predictors of treatment-resistant major depression; Psychopharmacology (2014) 231:685–693.
  14. Graziele Beanes, DDS,*† Ana Teresa Caliman-Fontes, MD,† Breno Souza-Marques, BScPsy,*† Hátilla Dos Santos Silva, BScBio,‡ Gustavo C. Leal, DDS,*† Beatriz Alves Carneiro, BScBio,*† Lívia N.F. Guerreiro-Costa, DDS,*† Alexandre V. Figueiredo, MD,† Camila Alexandrina V. Figueiredo, PhD,‡ Acioly L.T. Lacerda, PhD,§|| Ryan dos S. Costa, PhD,‡ and Lucas C. Quarantini, Effects of GRIN2B, GRIA1, and BDNF Polymorphisms on the Therapeutic Action of Ketamine and Esketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression Patients: Secondary Analysis From a Randomized Clinical Trial; Clinical Neuropharmacology • Volume 45, Number 6, November/December 2022.

Immune System References

  1. Qiu-Qin Han, Jin Yu, Inflammation: a mechanism of depression? Neurosci Bull June 1, 2014, 30(3): 515–523.
  2. Chieh-Hsin Lee1 and Fabrizio Giuliani, The role of inflammation in depression and fatigue; Frontires in Immunology, 19 July 2019.
  3. Milena Girotti, Jennifer J. Donegan, and David A Morilak, Influence of hypothalamic IL-6/gp130 receptor signaling on the HPA axis response to chronic stress; Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 July; 38(7): 1158–1169.
  4. Hubertus Himmerich, Olivia Patsalos, Nicole Lichtblau, Mohammad A. A. Ibrahim and Bethan Dalton, Cytokine Research in Depression: Principles, Challenges, and Open Questions; Frontiers in Psychiatry, 07 February 2019.
  5. Jennifer C. Felger1 and Francis E. Lotrich, Inflammatory Cytokines in Depression: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications; Neuroscience. 2013 August 29; 246: 199–229.

HPA Axis References

  1. Roel H. DeRijk a,b, ⁎, Nienke van Leeuwen b , Melanie D. Klok b , Frans G. Zitman, Corticosteroid receptor-gene variants: Modulators of the stress-response and implications for mental health; European Journal of Pharmacology 585 (2008) 492-501.
  2. Lisa R. Starr and Meghan Huang, HPA-axis multilocus genetic variation moderates associations between environmental stress and depressive symptoms among adolescents; Development and Psychopathology (2018), 1–14.
  3. Muzi Lia,b,1, Sibei Liuc,d,1, Carl D’Arcye,f, Tingting Gaod, Xiangfei Meng, Interactions of childhood maltreatment and genetic variations in adult depression: A systematic review; Journal of Affective Disorders 276 (2020) 119–136.
  4. Jan Terock, 1 , 2 Sandra Van der Auwera, 1 Deborah Janowitz, 1 Katharina Wittfeld, 1 , 3 Alexander Teumer, 4 and Hans J. Grabe, Functional polymorphisms of the mineralocorticoid receptor gene NR3C2 are associated with diminished memory decline: Results from a longitudinal general‐population study; Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2020 Sep; 8(9): e1345.
  5. Ivone Castro-Vale,1,2,*† Cecília Durães,2,3,† Elisabeth F. C. van Rossum,4 Sabine M. Staufenbiel,4 Milton Severo,5,6 Manuel C. Lemos,7 and Davide Carvalho; The Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene (NR3C1) 9β SNP Is Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder; Healthcare (Basel). 2021 Feb; 9(2): 173.
  6. Anthony S Zannas,1,2 Tobias Wiechmann,1 Nils C Gassen,1 and Elisabeth B Binder, Gene–Stress–Epigenetic Regulation of FKBP5: Clinical and Translational Implications; Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Jan; 41(1): 261–274.
  7. Damion J. Grasso a, Stacy Drury b, Margaret Briggs-Gowan a, Amy Johnson c, Julian Ford a, Garry Lapidus d, Victoria Scranton a, Christine Abreu e, Jonathan Covault, Adverse childhood experiences, posttraumatic stress, and FKBP5 methylation patterns in postpartum women and their newborn infants; Psychoneuroendocrinology Volume 114, April 2020, 104604.
  8. Catherine Sarah Symonds, The Hypothalamic – Pituitary – Adrenal Axis in Depression: a focus on the hippocampus, University of Manchester, 2013.

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